Además, desde el ataque del 7 de diciembre de 1941, el poder aéreo estadounidense en el archipiélago de Hawái había aumentado y por ello determinó que atacar directamente Pearl Harbor era demasiado arriesgado. More carrier crew members were trained in damage-control and firefighting techniques, although the losses later in the war of Shōkaku, Hiyō, and especially Taihō suggest that there were still problems in this area. El ataque a Midway —al igual que el de Pearl Harbor— no era parte de un plan para conquistar los Estados Unidos, sino que su objetivo era eliminar las fuerzas navales estadounidense del Pacífico y evitar su intervención en la campaña japonesa en el este y sudeste asiático. Soon after being spotted, Hiryū sank. During the fly down the length, the B-26 strafed Akagi, killing two men. [140] At about the same time as this change of course, Tambor was sighted and during maneuvers designed to avoid a submarine attack, the heavy cruisers Mogami and Mikuma collided, inflicting serious damage on Mogami's bow. [88]​ Por la mañana, el submarino lanzó un ataque con torpedos contra los cruceros, sin éxito, pero en los días siguientes la aviación de la isla, junto a la de los portaaviones, realizaron varios ataques a los cruceros, hundiendo al Mikuma y dejando gravemente dañado al Mogami. The strike from Hornet, led by Commander Stanhope C. Ring, followed an incorrect heading of 265 degrees rather than the 240 degrees indicated by the contact report. [104][105], Despite their failure to score any hits, the American torpedo attacks achieved three important results. Al mismo tiempo hizo despegar seis aviones de reconocimiento para ir en búsqueda de la flota enemiga, y cazas Mitsubishi A6M Zero para patrullar el espacio aéreo que rodeaba la zona. Finally, much of Yamamoto's planning, coinciding with the general feeling among the Japanese leadership at the time, was based on a gross misjudgment of American morale, which was believed to be debilitated from the string of Japanese victories in the preceding months. [23]​ Por ejemplo, a pesar de que se esperaba que los portaaviones de Nagumo soportaran la peor parte de los contraataques, los únicos buques de la flota que eran más grandes que los doce destructores que los encubrían eran dos acorazados rápidos de clase Kongō, dos cruceros pesados y un crucero ligero. Unfortunately sold out. On 19 May 1998, Robert Ballard and a team of scientists and Midway veterans from both sides located and photographed Yorktown, which was located 16,650 feet deep (3.1 miles). Beginning at 10:22, the two squadrons of Enterprise's air group split up with the intention of sending one squadron each to attack Kaga and Akagi. He mistakenly reported this group as the Main Force. Despite a scuttling attempt by a Japanese destroyer that hit her with a torpedo and then departed quickly, Hiryū stayed afloat for several more hours. After Midway and the exhausting attrition of the Solomon Islands campaign, Japan's capacity to replace its losses in materiel (particularly aircraft carriers) and men (especially well-trained pilots and maintenance crewmen) rapidly became insufficient to cope with mounting casualties, while the United States' massive industrial and training capabilities made losses far easier to replace. Sailors, including Ensign John d'Arc Lorenz called it an incalculable inspiration: "For the first time I realized what the flag meant: all of us—a million faces—all our effort—a whisper of encouragement. Towards the end of the day, he launched a search-and-destroy mission to seek out any remnants of Nagumo's carrier force. [49] These messages were, contrary to earlier historical accounts, also received by Nagumo before the battle began. Así, su radio de operaciones se extendía hasta 1900 kilómetros. Planes stood tail up, belching livid flames and jet-black smoke, making it impossible to bring the fires under control. Todos los aviones del segundo ataque incluidos los de reserva recibieron la orden de ser armados con bombas para atacar las instalaciones de la isla, una orden que resultó fatal. Dauntless / La Battaglia Di Midway DVD. At 05:34, a PBY reported sighting two Japanese carriers and another spotted the inbound airstrike 10 minutes later. Sei mesi dopo la vittoria a Pearl Harbor, la marina imperiale giapponese prepara una nuova offensiva per annientare le forze aeree e navali americane, puntando sull'atollo di Midway nel Pacifico. [169] Osmus was slated for the same fate; however, he resisted and was murdered on the Arashi with a fire ax, with his body being thrown overboard. The IJA occupied these islands to place the Japanese home islands out of range of U.S. land-based bombers across Alaska, making Japan the first foreign nation to occupy U.S. soil since the War of 1812. The torpedo bombers were armed with torpedoes should any American warships be located. [75]​ Así, sin la confirmación de la composición de la flota estadounidense que se había avistado, Nagumo fue cauteloso y prefirió esperar para decidir el tipo de armamento que se usaría durante el segundo ataque. [134] For his part, Yamamoto initially decided to continue the engagement and sent his remaining surface forces searching eastward for the American carriers. Aunque el portaaviones Zuikaku escapó de la batalla sin daños, había perdido casi la mitad de su grupo aéreo y en el puerto de Kure estaba esperando aviones y pilotos de reemplazo. [39], Thus, Carrier Division 5, consisting of the two most advanced aircraft carriers of the Kido Butai, were not available, which meant that Vice-Admiral Nagumo had only two-thirds of the fleet carriers at his disposal: Kaga and Akagi forming Carrier Division 1 and Hiryū and Sōryū as Carrier Division 2. [24]​, Para obtener el apoyo del Ejército Imperial en la operación en Midway, la Armada Imperial decidió apoyar la invasión a los Estados Unidos a través de Attu y Kiska, dos islas del archipiélago de las Aleutianas en el Territorio de Alaska. [100], The Japanese combat air patrol, flying Mitsubishi A6M2 Zeros,[101] made short work of the unescorted, slow, under-armed TBDs. This information was in Yamamoto's hands prior to the battle. Las bajas a bordo de los cuatro portaaviones fueron: 267 en el Akagi, 811 en el Kaga, 392 en el Hiryū y 711 en el Sōryū, sumando un total de 2181 muertos. £12.92. American anti-aircraft fire was intense and accurate, destroying three additional Japanese aircraft and damaging many more. [88], In the final analysis, it made no difference; Fletcher's carriers had launched their planes beginning at 07:00 (with Enterprise and Hornet having completed launching by 07:55, but Yorktown not until 09:08), so the aircraft that would deliver the crushing blow were already on their way. [27] Nimitz also hurriedly recalled Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher's task force, including the carrier Yorktown, from the South West Pacific Area. [183], Some authors have stated that heavy losses in carriers and veteran aircrews at Midway permanently weakened the Imperial Japanese Navy. [42]​ A pesar de los esfuerzos para tener al Saratoga —que había sido reparado en San Diego— listo para el siguiente enfrentamiento, la necesidad de reabastecerlo y reunir suficientes escoltas le impidió llegar a Midway hasta después de la batalla. [139] Unaware of the exact location of Yamamoto's "Main Body" (a persistent problem since the time PBYs had first sighted the Japanese), Spruance was forced to assume the "four large ships" reported by Tambor represented the main invasion force and so he moved to block it, while staying 100 nautical miles (190 km; 120 mi) northeast of Midway. [148] The heavy cruisers Mikuma (sunk; 700 casualties) and Mogami (badly damaged; 92) accounted for another 792 deaths. Spruance once again withdrew to the east to refuel his destroyers and rendezvous with the carrier Saratoga, which was ferrying much-needed replacement aircraft. [8]​[9]​, En la estrategia de Yamamoto el objetivo principal era eliminar los portaaviones estadounidenses, a los que veía como la amenaza más importante para la campaña del Pacífico. Japanese plans were not changed; Yamamoto, at sea in Yamato, assumed Nagumo had received the same signal from Tokyo, and did not communicate with him by radio, so as not to reveal his position. Por ello resultó necesario efectuar un segundo ataque, pues la pista de aterrizaje y despegue del atolón no había sido destruida por la falta de bombas terrestres. Yamamoto, a bordo del Yamato, asumió que Nagumo había recibido la misma información desde Tokio y no se comunicó con él por radio para no revelar su posición. [184] Parshall and Tully have stated that the heavy losses in veteran aircrew (110, just under 25% of the aircrew embarked on the four carriers)[185] were not crippling to the Japanese naval air corps as a whole; the Japanese navy had 2,000 carrier-qualified aircrews at the start of the Pacific war. El ataque, que duró seis minutos, fue devastador: tres de los cuatro portaaviones japoneses estaban en llamas, inoperantes y fuera de combate. [204][208][209][210], This article is about the 1942 battle. La battaglia di Midway (Midway) è un film di guerra del 1976 diretto da Jack Smight. This would place them at about 155 nautical miles (287 km; 178 mi) from the Japanese fleet, assuming it did not change course. Second, the poor control of the Japanese combat air patrol (CAP) meant they were out of position for subsequent attacks. [112] Most of the Japanese CAP was directing its attention to the torpedo planes of VT-3 and was out of position; meanwhile, armed Japanese strike aircraft filled the hangar decks, fuel hoses snaked across the decks as refueling operations were hastily being completed, and the repeated change of ordnance meant that bombs and torpedoes were stacked around the hangars, rather than stowed safely in the magazines, making the Japanese carriers extraordinarily vulnerable.[113]. Inspirada en los hechos reales que rodearon la Batalla de Midway, se centra en los marineros y aviadores que defendieron las Islas Midway. Some of the aircrew were inexperienced, which may have contributed to an accident in which Thach's executive officer Lieutenant Commander Donald Lovelace was killed. Nimitz calculated that the aircraft on his three carriers, plus those on Midway Island, gave the U.S. rough parity with Yamamoto's four carriers, mainly because American carrier air groups were larger than Japanese ones. Dauntless: L'Enfer de Midway: Germany (DVD title) Schlacht um Midway - Entscheidung im Pazifik: Italy: Dauntless - La battaglia di Midway: Norway (DVD title) The Battle of Midway… Los cálculos indicaban que habían muy pocas probabilidades de que todos los aviones de reserva (armados con bombas) pudiesen despegar antes de la llegada de los primeros. [38], Historians Jonathan Parshall and Anthony Tully believe that by combining the surviving aircraft and pilots from Shōkaku and Zuikaku, it is likely that Zuikaku could have been equipped with almost a full composite air group. This was the only successful air-launched torpedo attack by the U.S. during the entire battle. [174] Another 35 crewmen from Hiryū were taken from a lifeboat by USS Ballard on 19 June after being spotted by an American search plane. Anexo:Orden de batalla de la batalla de Midway, «A Brief History of Aircraft Carriers: Battle of Midway», «Oil and Japanese Strategy in the Solomons: A Postulate», «What If Japan Had Won The Battle of Midway?», «Battle of Midway: Repairing the Yorktown After the Battle of the Coral Sea», «After Midway: The Fates of the U.S. and Japanese Warships», Mover la guerra. La distancia entre las fuerzas de Kondō y Yamamoto y los portaaviones de Nagumo tuvo consecuencias graves durante la batalla, porque se le negó a este último la inestimable capacidad de los aviones de reconocimiento transportados por los cruceros y portaaviones, así como la capacidad antiaérea adicional que ofrecían los cruceros junto a los dos acorazados clase Kongō. The crew of the research vessel Petrel confirmed the discovery of another Japanese carrier, the Akagi, on 21 October 2019. Throughout the night of 6 June and into the morning of 7 June, Yorktown remained afloat; but by 05:30 on 7 June, observers noted that her list was rapidly increasing to port. Lo (formerly Midway) CVE 63", "Biography of Rear Admiral John Ford; U.S. Parshall, Jonathan; Tully, Anthony (2005). However, considering the increased strength of American land-based airpower on the Hawaiian Islands since the 7 December attack the previous year, he judged that it was now too risky to attack Pearl Harbor directly. ADD TO CART ADD TO CART. [90]​, Después de la batalla, y sabiendo que habían conseguido una gran victoria, los estadounidenses se retiraron de la región. El 5.º Escuadrón de Exploración (VS-5) fue remplazado por el 3.er Escuadrón Bombardero (VB-3) del USS Saratoga; el 5.º Escuadrón Torpedero (VT-5) se remplazó por el 3.er Escuadrón (VT-3); el 3.er Escuadrón de Caza (VF-3) se reconstituyó para remplazar al 42.° Escuadrón (VF-42), con dieciséis pilotos del VF-42 y once del VF-3 y el teniente comandante John S. Thach al mando. [191] By the time of the Battle of the Philippine Sea in June 1944, the Japanese had nearly rebuilt their carrier forces in terms of numbers, but their planes, many of which were obsolete, were largely flown by inexperienced and poorly trained pilots. Witnesses saw Nagumo standing near the ship’s compass looking out at the flames on his flagship and two other carriers in a trance-like daze. [150] Furthermore, the American air groups had suffered considerable losses, including most of their torpedo bombers. [18] It required the careful and timely coordination of multiple battle groups over hundreds of miles of open sea. [63], Midway's radar picked up the enemy at a distance of several miles, and interceptors were scrambled. He completed his torpedo attack on the aircraft carrier Sōryū before he was shot down, but Sōryū evaded his torpedo. Five torpedo bombers and two fighters were shot down in this attack. A one-day delay in the sailing of Nagumo's task force resulted in Operation AL beginning a day before the Midway attack. [11] Admiral Yamamoto finally won the bureaucratic struggle with a thinly veiled threat to resign, after which his plan for the Central Pacific was adopted. Contributors. Estratégicamente, el resultado de la batalla implicó que la Marina Imperial perdiera la iniciativa en el Pacífico, la que pasó de manera definitiva a los estadounidenses. As a result, Japanese naval air groups as a whole progressively deteriorated during the war while their American adversaries continued to improve. Aunque tradicionalmente se considera que la operación fue una distracción para mantener a los estadounidenses alejados del Midway, de acuerdo al plan original, el ataque a las islas y al atolón debían iniciar simultáneamente, pero la fuerza operativa de Nagumo se retrasó un día en la navegación y eso causó que la operación en las Aleutianas iniciara el día antes. [120][121] At 10:46, Admiral Nagumo transferred his flag to the light cruiser Nagara. Inmediatamente después de los ataques, los bombarderos en picado americanos dirigidos por Clarence Wade McClusky y Richard Best se aproximaron a gran altura, sin ser acosados por los cazas Zero que perseguían a los torpederos cercanos al mar, dos escuadrones de bombarderos que atacaron en picado desde el noreste y suroeste. The distance between Yamamoto and Kondo's forces and Nagumo's carriers had grave implications during the battle: the invaluable reconnaissance capability of the scout planes carried by the cruisers and carriers, as well as the additional antiaircraft capability of the cruisers and the other two battleships of the Kongō-class in the trailing forces, was unavailable to Nagumo. These inexperienced pilots were fed into front-line units, while the veterans who remained after Midway and the Solomons campaign were forced to share an increased workload as conditions grew more desperate, with few being given a chance to rest in rear areas or in the home islands. The raid, while militarily insignificant, was a shock to the Japanese and showed the existence of a gap in the defenses around the Japanese home islands as well as the vulnerability of Japanese territory to American bombers. El almirante Nagumo lanzó su primer ataque a la isla a las 4:30 del 4 de junio de 1942 con un total de 108 aviones de combate. Cronológicamente se libró un mes después de la batalla del Mar de Coral, cinco meses después de la conquista japonesa de la isla Wake y seis meses después del ataque a Pearl Harbor, que supuso el inicio del conflicto en el Pacífico entre japoneses y estadounidenses. Este requería la coordinación cuidadosa y oportuna de muchos grupos a cientos de kilómetros en mar abierto. [30]​ Como resultado, los estadounidenses llegaron a la batalla con una imagen bastante clara de dónde, cuándo y con qué fuerza atacarían los japoneses. [157], The Japanese public and much of the military command structure were kept in the dark about the extent of the defeat: Japanese news announced a great victory. The 10 F4Fs from Hornet ran out of fuel and had to ditch. For instance, cryptanalysis made possible the shooting down of Admiral Yamamoto's airplane in 1943. A mediados de 1943 la aviación japonesa había sido prácticamente diezmada. [46], Japanese strategic scouting arrangements prior to the battle were also in disarray. Consequently, even the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) continued to believe, for at least a short time, that the fleet was in good condition. (27 de abril de 2005). [72] The aircraft, either attempting a suicide ramming, or out of control due to battle damage or a wounded or killed pilot, narrowly missed crashing into the carrier's bridge, which could have killed Nagumo and his command staff, before it cartwheeled into the sea. [89], The Americans had already launched their carrier aircraft against the Japanese. Japanese reconnaissance arrangements were flimsy, with too few aircraft to adequately cover the assigned search areas, laboring under poor weather conditions to the northeast and east of the task force. Slaget var fremkaldt af Japan og varede fra 4. til 7. juni 1942 . VAT included - FREE Shipping. This led to a sharp decline in the quality of the aviators produced. [21]​ Esta táctica era practicada por casi todas las armadas más importantes de la época. Yorktown Boulevard leading away from the strip was named for the U.S. carrier sunk in the battle. [141] Only at 04:12 did the sky brighten enough for Murphy to be certain the ships were Japanese, by which time staying surfaced was hazardous and he dived to approach for an attack. Da una storia vera Nel giugno del 1942 sei mesi dopo la sua vittoria a Pearl Harbor, la marina imperiale giapponese preparò una nuova offensiva per annientare le forze aeree e navali americane, prendendo possesso dell'atollo di Midway nel Pacifico La superiorità giapponese è indiscutibile, Most significantly, American cryptographers were able to determine the date and location of the planned attack, enabling the forewarned U.S. Navy to prepare its own ambush. La battaglia delle Midway (in inglese The Battle of Midway; in giapponese ミッドウェー海戦 Middowē kaisen?) [61]​[62]​ Al contrario de otras versiones históricas, Nagumo también recibió esta información antes de que comenzara la batalla. Check other buying options. Yamamoto además ubicó al "grueso" de la Flota combinada a más de 500 km de distancia, dejándolo sin posibilidad de una rápida intervención en caso de contactar con fuerzas enemigas. [75], In accordance with Yamamoto's orders for Operation MI, Admiral Nagumo had kept half of his aircraft in reserve. The four Japanese fleet carriers—Akagi, Kaga, Sōryū and Hiryū, part of the six-carrier force that had attacked Pearl Harbor six months earlier—were sunk, as was the heavy cruiser Mikuma.

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